Hello Respected Researchers and HR managers, In this section we will discuss about “Division and Coordination of Labour“. It is very much important for a Researcher as well as HR Concern person/ manager to know the Division and Coordination of Labour. If researcher or HR Manager could follow the Points accordingly,it would easier to reach the goal. Let’s have a look…
⇒ Division and Coordination of Labour:
(1). Work Specialization:
- Work specialization refers to the division of labour, specifically to the degree to which tasks are broken down into separate jobs. In some manufacturing firms division of labour is very high, where each person performs the same task over and over again, and it represents a small component of the final output. Management in organisations today must structure work in a way that maximises output; and this is very much a function of worker satisfaction and morale. As the workforce has become more educated, so has the need for jobs that are intrinsically rewarding. Therefore, the division of labour must be designed around the nature of the work and the people that must contribute to the process.
(2). Centralization and Decentralization:
- These terms refer to the decision-making process in organisations. Centralised decision-making is concentrated, typically at the top of the organization. Decentralised decision-making allows lower-level employees to make or contribute to the decision making process. More and more we see organizations becoming decentralised, as they flatten the organizational structure. Decentralised decision-making often boosts employee morale in that it allows people to feel they are a significant part of the organization.
- Departmentation is the grouping of jobs in a way that most effectively serves the needs of the organisation. There are numerous ways in which jobs can be grouped in an organisation. The most common grouping is by function. For example we might see that an organisation separates research and development, operations, marketing, finance, human resources into common departments.
(4). Chain of Command:
- The coordination of labour in a large organization comes under a chain of command which may be short or long. This is the reporting system —who reports to whom— and it is something that must be clear to members of the organisation so they will understand the process of communication and reporting. The chain of command has seen dramatic changes over the last number of years. This is partly due to the structural changes that have emerged as organisations focussed on getting closer to the customer.
(5). Span of Control:
- The number and functional diversity of employees reporting to a manager or supervisor determines that manager’s span of control. In order to determine how wide or narrow the span of control should be, we must answer the question ‘How many employees can a supervisor manage directly and still meet corporate expectations and goals?’ The answer to that question is ‘it depends.’ Some organisations are structured in a way such that self-managed teams do not necessitate narrow spans of control because they can make appropriate decisions independently of direct supervision. The success of wide spans of control also depends on individual differences (some people prefer to be directly supervised, while others feel thwarted by such close supervision), as well as the task itself (professional firms may have wider spans of control than manufacturing firms, where division of labour is very high).
(6). Formalization and Standardization:
- Formalization refers to the explicit nature of rules, policies, work process procedures that guide work and decision making within the organisation. Often employees depend on specific written instruction for explanation or clarification of their job descriptions, responsibilities, accountability, etc.
- Standardization refers to the level of variety or range of actions in a job or job series. Standardization is created in organisations with a view to maximizing efficiencies; where similar work activities are performed in a similar fashion. This often eliminates the need to determine a response to problems or challenges, because experience with similar problems has enabled a response to be prescribed.
(7). Cross-functional Liaison:
- The above descriptions of division and coordination are common to most organizations. A growing challenge for many organisations is the effective coordination across lateral departments and functions, where variation and incongruence often exists for goals, time spans, interpersonal communication. Often organizations establish specific roles to address these challenges:
- (7.1). Liaison Roles : This typically involves the role of a person who communicates and coordinates between two departments. They are also referred to as linking pins. Sometimes a department will have its own liaison person, who is responsible for communicating with the liaison in another department. For example, in a hospital, there might be a liaison role for a person in physical therapy who is in constant contact with the post-operative department in order to facilitate scheduling.
- (7.2). Task forces : Task forces do much the same thing, but instead of communicating between two departments, they communicate between several departments, or activities, or functions. Task forces are typically temporary groups that are set up to address and coordinate problems and include representatives from each department, either on a full-time or part-time basis.
- (7.3). Integrators : Finally, a full-time integrator will do nothing but coordinate between departments, and is not a member of any one department. Sometimes integrator’s play important roles in change projects, where they will coordinate activities between functions or departments. They are really full-time problem solvers.
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