Expectancy Theory of Motivation

Hello Respected Researchers and HR managers, In this section we will discuss about “Expectancy Theory of Motivation“. It is very much important for a Researcher as well as HR Concern person/ manager to know the Expectancy Theory of Motivation. If researcher or HR Manager could follow the Points accordingly,it would easier to reach the goal. Let’s have a look…


Another approach, one that many believe goes far in explaining how people are motivated, is the expectancy theory. One of the leaders in advancing and explaining this theory is the psychologist Victor H. Vroom. He holds that people will be motivated to do things to reach a goal if they believe in the worth of that goal and if they can see that what they do will help them in achieving it. In his own terms, Vroom’s theory may be stated as-

There are three components to Expectancy Theory:

⇒ Expectancy is my sense of the probability that I can actually do the work (am I competent enough, do I have enough time, do I have enough help?). Our expectancy lies somewhere between 0 and 1.

⇒ Instrumentality is also a probability, so is expressed as a number between 0 and 1. Instrumentality refers to our perception of the probability that doing this work will actually lead to, or result in the desired outcome.

⇒ Valence is the value that we attach to the actual outcome. Unlike expectancy or instrumentality, valence is a number between -1, and +1. Negative one is a very undesirable outcome and +1 is very desirable, you might have no interest in the outcome, in which case the valence would be equal to –1.

And Vroom suggested, through an equation, that each of these components is related to one another. M=ExIxV.

                Motivation = Expectancy x Interest x valence

What Is Diversity and Why Is It Important: 

Diversity is an important concept for all members to understand and appreciate, particularly given the growing diversity in the workplace, and the globalisation of organisations.

It examines differences with respect to age, gender, race, educational backgrounds, ethnicity, and disabilities of workers.

As members of an organisation, you need to be aware that while there are legal and ethical reasons for effectively managing diversity, there are also a number of potential economic benefits of a diverse workforce. Organisations have experienced reduced costs, resource acquisition, marketing and problem-solving advantages as well as increased flexibility through diversity.

The changing demographics of the workforce and internationalisation of business is having an effect on the formulation of diversity policies within many organisations today.

⊕ Managerial Implications of Diversity:

There are a number of characteristics of a multicultural organisation that are worth noting. These organisations tend to create workgroup cohesiveness, mitigate conflict and turnover and foster coherent action on major organisational goals Some features of such organisations are as follows:

  1. They actively seek to capitalise on the advantages of diversity, rather than attempting to stifle or ignore the diversity, and to minimise the barriers that can develop as a result of people having different backgrounds, attitudes, values, behaviour styles, and concerns.
  2. Organisational resources (jobs, income, access to information) are distributed equitably and are not determined or affected by cultural characteristics such as race and gender.
  3. The ability to influence decisions and the way there are carried out is shared widely, not differentially by cultural characteristics.
  4. Minority group members are fully integrated in the informal networks of the organisation.
  5. The organisational culture is pluralistic in that it recognises and appreciates diversity and all cultural groups respect and learn from each other.
  6. Institutional policies, practices and procedures are flexible and responsive to the needs of all employees
  7. There is an absence of prejudice and discrimination
  8. Majority and minority members are equally identified with the organisational goals.
  9. There is a minimum of intergroup conflict among diverse groups.


There may be some more documents on Expectancy Theory of Motivation, this article is written by taking the help from Internet and other resources like Books, journals etc.


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