Management-Definition and Functions of Management

Hello Respected Researchers and HR managers, In this section we will discuss about “Management-Definition and Functions of Management“. It is very much important for a Researcher as well as HR Concern person/ manager to know the definition of management and Functions of Management. If researcher or HR Manager could follow the Points accordingly,it would easier to reach the goal. Let’s have a look…



Management has been defined by various authors/ authorities in various ways. So, the definitions of management are numerous. A few often-quoted definitions are:

“ The process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling the work to reach stated organizational goals (James A. F. Stoner, et. al., 1997).”

 “ Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling the work to an organization’s human, financial, physical, and information resources to achieve organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner”(Griffin, 1984).

“Management is a distinct process consisting of activities of planning, actuating, and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish stated objectives with the use of human beings and other resources”.

⇒ All these definitions put emphasis on the attainment of organizational goals for the best use of organization’s resources. Many of us are act to define management as “ getting things done through other people in an efficient manner.” The most acceptable definition of management could be the act of  “designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in group, efficiently accomplish selected aims.”


⊕ Functions of Management:

Many scholars and managers have found that the analysis of management facilitated by a useful and clear organization of knowledge. In studying management, therefor, it is helpful to beak it down into FOUR major managerial functions:

  • Planning,
  • Organizing,
  • Leading  and 
  • Controlling.

A process is a systematic way of doing things. We refer to management as a process to emphasise that all managers, irrespective of their aptitude or skill, engage in some inter-related functions in order to achieve their desired goals. In this lesson we will briefly describe the functions that comprise the process of management.

(1). Planning: Planning may be defined as making decisions in advance as to what is to be done in the future. It is a future course of action. It implies that managers think through their goals and actions in advance and their actions are based on some method, plan or logic rather than on hunch. Plans give the organisation its objectives and set up the best procedures for reaching them.

(2). Organising: Once a manager has developed a work plan, the next phase of management is to organise the people and other resources necessary to carry out the plan. Organising may be referred to as the process of arranging and allocating work, authority and resources among an organisation’s members so they can achieve the organisation’s goals.

(3). Leading: Leading is an important job of the manager. It involves directing, influencing and motivating employees to perform essential tasks. To lead these people to contribute to organisation and group goals constitutes an essential function of the manager. In fact, the manager has to get on intimate terms with them if he wants to lead them successfully. The manager leads in an attempt to persuade others to join them in pursuit of the future that emerges from the planning and organising steps.

(4). Controlling: The final phase of the management process is controlling. As the organisation moves toward its goals, management must monitor its progress. It must make sure that events conform to plans. Controlling involves measuring performance against goals and plans and helping correct deviations from standards. As a matter of fact, controlling facilitates the accomplishment of plans. Although planning must precede controlling, plans are not self-achieving. They guide the manager in the use of resources to accomplish specific goals. Activities are evaluated to determine whether they conform to the plans.


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