Hello Respected Researchers and HR managers, In this section we will discuss about “STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT-Models and Group Rules“. It is very much important for a Researcher as well as HR Concern person/ manager to know the Stages of Group Development-Models and Group Rules. If researcher or HR Manager could follow the Points accordingly,it would easier to reach the goal. Let’s have a look…


Groups passed through a standard sequence of five stages. These stages are:

  1. Forming: Forming is characterized by a great deal of uncertainty about the group purpose, structure & leadership. This stage is complete when members have begun to think of themselves as part of Q group.
  2. Storming: The storming stage is one of intragroup conflict. There is conflict over who will control the group. When this stage is complete, there will be a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group.
  3. Norming: The third stage is one in which close relationships develop & the group demonstrates cohesiveness. There is now a strong sense of group identity & camaraderie (intimacy).
  4. Performing: The fourth stage is performing. The structure at this point is fully functional and accepted. Group energy has moved from getting to know and understand each other to performing the task at hand.
  5. Adjourning: In this stage, the group prepares for its disbandment. High task performance is no longer the group’s top priority. Instead, attention is directed toward wrapping up activities.

⊕ The Punctuated Equilibrium Model:

This model suggests that when groups are working toward a specific deadline, that the behaviour of the group develops in a curious sequence. The group research conducted by Connie Gersick  indicates an equilibrium or stability within the group, punctuated by a critical first meeting, a midpoint change in group activity, and then a rush to complete the task toward the end of the project.

⇒ During the first half of a project, a great deal of the content of group interaction is based on routines, known as schema guided automatic processing. The main functional value of routines is efficiency. Some tasks are accomplished more effectively when they have become habitual. Group routines are maintained for a number of reasons: 1) social impact factors (the size of the group often makes change difficult), ‘entrainment’, which is calibration to a particular kind of response pattern, and cost of change (including political costs).

⇒ Gersick’s research suggests that every group, throughout a project life, goes through a transition, where the group drops old patterns, and adopts a new perspective on their work, which helps facilitate dramatic progress. In the first half of the project, group members’ pacing patterns are more idiosyncratic, and there tends to be a reluctance to compromise with group mates. The midpoint of a project marks a time of change for most groups: it launches them into a different activity level. After the midpoint, groups typically are more likely to have a majority agreement. Often toward the end of the project, there is an additional burst of energy to complete the project.

⊕ Group Roles:

⇒ Individual group members tend to play distinct roles in an effort to facilitate group progress. Typically a member says or does something with a view to accomplishing one of three things:

1.Task Roles: Persons in such roles focus on the task or work being done. A group member in this role tends to focus on human and economic resources and various sources of information that are required to accomplish or complete the work itself. In terms of human resources, members of the group may play different task roles: coordinating work loads, problem solver, creating strategies to complete the work, for example.

2. Maintenance Roles: This is one of the most critical roles in a group, and is often the role of one or two people, but not because the group has chosen them; it is just their nature to facilitate communication and activity. This person tries to ensure that harmony is created and maintained in the group, and that every member of the group has a fair chance to participate. This role is often called a gatekeeping role someone who maintains a ‘check’ on the temperature of the group.

3. Individual Roles: These are like the cancerous cells in a body: they are dysfunctional and destructive, each serving to infect the cells around it. People in individual roles do not consider the needs of the group beyond their own. They typically interrupt others, are ‘know-it-alls’, or do not listen effectively to understand the contribution that others are making.


There may be some more documents on STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT-Models and Group Rules , this article is written by taking the help from Internet and other resources like Books, journals etc.


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