What is Power?-Definition, Meaning and Sources

Hello Respected Researchers and HR managers, In this section we will discuss about “What is Power with Definition, Meaning and Sources “. It is very much important for a Researcher as well as HR Concern person/ manager to know What is Power with Definition, Meaning and Sources. If researcher or HR Manager could follow the Points accordingly,it would easier to reach the goal. Let’s have a look…

 

() Power is the capacity to influence others who are in a state of dependence. Power is used to get someone to do something that is consistent with our own planned objectives. It is important to note that while power is the capacity to influence others, it is not always exercised. While you may have the power to influence the direction your subordinates take on specific projects, you may not exercise that power, because it is inconsistent with your desire to empower those subordinates.

(We imagine power being used by senior people within an organisation. While this is often the case, the ability to influence others is multi-directional. Subordinates often have power over their superiors, and we often have power over co-workers, because we are able to influence their behaviour based on our relationship with them, rather than our position within the organisation.

(Managing Power:

How do we make use of power in an effort to influence the behaviour of others? Research has shown that there are a number of specific strategies and behaviours that we adopt:

  • Reason: this involves using rational, logical arguments with facts and data that have been collected. Reason is the most used strategy of the seven listed here.
  • Friendliness: we might use goodwill, flattery, or be especially nice to someone before we make a request.
  • Coalition: often we will rally others together in order to use those relationships for support, in order to back up the request.
  • Bargaining: we might be able to achieve our objective by exchanging benefits or favours with others.
  • Assertiveness: we might be direct and forceful, by demanding that people do what is being asked of them. This often involves repeated requests or making reference to rules that necessitate compliance.
  • Higher authority: we sometimes seek the support from superiors to back up requests.
  • Sanctions: we use organisationally derived rewards and punishments, such as salary increases, promotions, demotions, and performance evaluations, to achieve desired outcomes.

 

(Psychologist David McClelland argues that effective managers:

  1. Have a high need for power
  2. Use their power to achieve organisational goals
  3. Adopt a participative or ‘coaching’ leadership style
  4. Are relatively unconcerned with how much others like them.
  5. McClelland identified these employees as institutional managers, and argued that they tend to subordinate personal needs to organisational objectives. They make good managers because they show no favourites (as a result of not worrying too much about being liked), and they clearly articulate organisational priorities, instill team spirit and empower others.

(Sources of Power:

There are five primary sources or bases of power:

(1 ). Reward: Reward power allows managers to exert influence by providing positive outcomes that affect the behaviour of others. A manager can influence behaviour by recommending salary increases, promotions, or interesting work, and intrinsic rewards such as flattery and compliments.

(2).  Coercive: Coercive power enables managers to deny employees specific rewards when they are not displaying desired behaviour. Employees might be punished with a reduction in pay, a demotion, or they might be given less attractive work or even threatened with dismissal.

But coercive power has its limits, particularly in a unionised environment, where employees might work-to-rule until their demands are given some attention. Coercive power generally has negative consequences in the workplace; it decreases morale, and increases mistrust and fear.

(3). Legitimate: Legitimate power is a function of one’s position within the structure of the organisation. Naturally the CEO tends to have substantial legitimate power. It emerges from one’s place within the hierarchy.

(4). Expert: Expert power emerges from specific expertise, skills, information or knowledge that one possesses within the organisation. Doctors often have expert power in that patients assume they have a base of knowledge and expertise that can be relied upon to make decisions about their health. Expert power, like referent power, is a source of power for people throughout the organisation.

(5).  Referent: As mentioned above, legitimate power is enhanced with personal characteristics of a manager or leader. Referent power is a function of being respected and admired by others. One of the unique features of referent power is that it is a base of power for anyone in the organisation regardless of the position they hold. We are willing to be influenced by people that we like and often employees in middle or lower level positions have the power through charisma and other personal characteristics to influence the behaviour of their co-workers.

 

()  Managing Power:

  1. Psychologist David McClelland argues that effective managers:
  2. Have a high need for power
  3. Use their power to achieve organisational goals
  4. Adopt a participative or ‘coaching’ leadership style
  5. Are relatively unconcerned with how much others like them.

 

McClelland identified these employees as institutional managers, and argued that they tend to subordinate personal needs to organisational objectives. They make good managers because they show no favourites (as a result of not worrying too much about being liked), and they clearly articulate organisational priorities, instill team spirit and empower others.

 

There may be some more documents on What is Power with Definition, Meaning and Sources, this article is written by taking the help from Internet and other resources like Books, journals etc.

***END***

Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.




For security, use of Google's reCAPTCHA service is required which is subject to the Google Privacy Policy and Terms of Use.

I agree to these terms.