Which factors are responsible for large scale fading?

Hello Researchers, In this section we will discuss about “factors are responsible for large scale fading“. In Mobile Radio Propagation specially in Wireless communication it is very much important topic for Researchers.  

 

The three Basic Propagation Mechanisms:

Reflection, diffraction and scattering are the three basic propagation mechanisms which impact propagation in mobile communication system.

Reflection:

Reflection occurs when a propagating EM wave impinges upon an object which has very large dimensions compared to wavelength of the propagating wave. Reflection occur from the surface of the earth and from buildings and walls.

⇒ Diffraction:

Diffraction occurs when the radio path between the transmitter and receiver is obstructed by a surface that has sharp irregularities (edges). The secondary waves resulting from the obstructing surface are present throughout the space and even behind the obstacle, giving rise to a bending of waves around the obstacle, even when the LOS path does not exist between T and R. Diffraction depends on the geometry of the object as well as the amplitude, phase and polarization of the incident wave at the point of diffraction.

⇒ Scattering:

Scattering occurs when the medium through which the wave travels consists of objects with dimension that are small compared to the wavelength and where the number of obstacles per unit volume is large. Scattered waves are produced by rough surfaces, small objects or by other irregularities in the channel.

⇒ Absorption:

Attenuation by solid material (Example: wall)

 

There may be some more documents on factors are responsible for large scale fading, this article is written by taking the help from Internet and other resources like Books, journals etc.

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